What does a DNA test involve?
A DNA test uses the genetic material or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) present in all of the cells in our body to determine the biological family relationship between two or more individuals. All human beings are genetically different from one another (except identical twins), but are 50% like each one of our biological parents. Hence, our DNA profile enables us to distinguish ourselves individually from all the rest of the population and determine relationships with our biological family members (parents, brothers/sisters, grandparents, etc.).
Can a paternity or maternity test determine to a 100% degree of certainty that the person is question is NOT the biological father or the biological mother, respectively, of another individual?
Yes. When they have alleles (variant forms of one same gene) which are incompatible in any of the markers analyzed, the person in question can be excluded as a biological parent.
Can a paternity or maternity test determine to a 100% degree of certainty that the person in question is the biological father or the biological mother, respectively, of another individual?
No. When they have compatible alleles in all of the markers analyzed, the probability of the person in question being the biological parent is calculated. The degree of certainty is never 100% due to a statistical aspect, but is greater than 99.999% when both parents take part in the testing.
Are the results of the test strictly confidential?
Yes. The test results report will be delivered exclusively to the applicant at his/her home or to the address furnished to us by the applicant.
How long does it take to get the results?
The test result delivery time is 15 business days, although we also have a 5-day express service available.
What biological samples can be used for conducting the DNA tests?
GENOMICA avails of the technology necessary for being able to analyze any type of biological sample with guaranteed results (blood, saliva, hair, sperm, blood stains, biopsies, bone remains, fingernails/toenails) or organic traces present on all types of garments or objects (cigarette butts, baby pacifiers, chewing gum, hosiery, envelopes, brushes, drinking glasses or cups). We recommend that you discuss this with u in order to optimize the analysis and the results.
We routinely use buccal epithelial cells as samples, given that taking these samples is quite simple and totally painless.
Is a test done on blood samples more reliable than one done on saliva or other biological samples?
No. All of a person’s cells contain exactly the same DNA, so the degree of accuracy and reliability of the results is the same, regardless of the biological material used.
Can the paternity test be done without a sample from the mother or vice-versa?
Yes. The sample from the parent not in doubt is not indispensable in order to be able to do a test with maximum guarantees, always achieving a probability greater than 99.99%. If both of the parents are tested, a higher degree of probability is achieved, but this is not indispensable.
Are the GENOMICA paternity/maternity analysis reports legally valid or valid as proof in courts of law?
The admissibility of a DNA test in the courts of law depends on a correct process of taking, identifying and sending the samples to the laboratories. In order for the identification to be made of the samples, it is necessary for the Spanish National Identity Cards or Passports of the people involved in the analysis to be provided. In the case of minors to whom these documents have not been issued, a recent photo must be provided.
Can a paternity/maternity test valid in court be done without the mother’s/father’s permission?
Yes, it is not currently indispensable to have the express permission of the other parent in order for these tests to be admissible as proof in Spanish courts of law. Due to the legal void existing concerning this aspect, it is the judge proper who must decide as to whether or not the genetic report is admissible as evidence if one of the parents has not rendered their express consent.
What is the degree of accuracy of the biological family relationship test?
The degree of accuracy of the biological family relationship tests depends on how distant the relationship one wishes to investigate may be (the more distant, the lesser the degree of probability), the additional genetic information one has (the larger the number of family members analyzed, the greater the likelihood) and also the genetic markers analyzed (the greater the number of markers analyzed, the greater the likelihood). Additionally, in certain cases, it will be necessary to resort to the mitochondrial DNA and/ or Y-chromosome study in order to be able to achieve sufficiently significant probabilities.
How many family members have to be analyzed fora biological family relationship test to be done?
Theoretically, two individuals are needed in order to do any type of biological family relationship test (uncle-nephew, grandfather-grandson, etc.). Nevertheless, in most cases, on analyzing more individuals (the mother, another uncle, the grandmother, etc.), more genetic information is gleaned, which has a bearing on the statistical assessment of the test.
Is it possible to distinguish between two twin siblings by means of the DNA test?
Not if the siblings are univiteline (monozygotic) twins, commonly known as “identical twins”, given that they share exactly the same genetic information, being clones, so to say, and so it would therefore not be possible to distinguish between the two by means of the DNA test. However, biviteline (dizygotic) twins, commonly known as “fraternal twins”, can indeed be told apart from one another genetically, given that they are just as similar to one another as two regular brothers.
Does GENOMICA do genealogical studies?
Yes. GENOMICA can obtain information concerning the genealogy of anyone who so requests. For this purpose, GENOMICA conducts a mitochondrial DNA test (maternal line) of the individual and, in the event that the applicant is a male, it can also analyze the Y-chromosome (paternal line).
What is genetic fingerprinting and what purpose does it serve?
Genetic fingerprinting is also referred to as DNA testing or DNA analysis and is the technique use for distinguishing between one individual and another by using samples of their DNA.
Human genetic sequences are all the same for the most part, the repetition of certain highly-variable sequences known as microsatellites being used for distinguishing one individual from another.
An individual’s genetic fingerprint is unique and remains unchanged throughout a person’s entire life, therefore serving to identify individuals much more reliably that by regular fingerprinting.